Cause, effect, comparison and contrast

This English lesson looks at the different linking words which contrast, compare and establish cause and effect. Words such as ‘due to”, ‘consequently’, ‘so as’, ‘nevertheless’, ‘despite’, ‘although’ and many others are examined in terms of their meaning and function. This is part of a course I am making for students taking the FCE exam, and this information will be especially useful for the writing and use of English papers. I recommend you learn how to use all these words by heart. They will definitely appear in the exam.

 

EXPLAIN

as
since
because

thanks to
owing to
due to
because of

therefore
consequently
as a result
this has led to
this has resulted in
The cause of this is
The reason for this is

CONTRAST

However
Nonetheless
Nevertheless
Even so
On the contrary

In spite of
despite
although
even though

LINKING WORDS EXERCISE 1

Additional and conditional linking words

Another lesson but this one focuses on conditional and additional linking words.

 

COMPARE

While
Whereas
On the other hand

(conditional connectors)
until
unless
in case
as soon as
providing that
as long as
on condition that

ADDING INFORMATION

Besides
Moreover
Furthermore
As well as
In addition to

Firstly, secondly, thirdly

EXAMPLES

For example
For instance
Such as
Like
To illustrate this

LINKING WORDS EXERCISE 2

Used to, be used to, get used to

And please make sure you are very familiar with the various forms of used to. This English lesson looks at all forms.

used to + infinitive = WAS TRUE. NOT TRUE NOW I used to have a pony tail
be/get used to + ___ing = be/get familiar with

So and Such

And you’ll also need to bear in mind small differences between easily confused words. For example, the difference between so and such.

So + adjective. (The hotel was so cosy.)
Such + (adjective) + noun. (It was such a lovely day)

As and Like

The following English Lesson looks as the difference between as and like. Here are the basic differences highlighted

as + function/job (Please use my coat as a blanket)
like or such as = for example (I enjoy winter sports, like/such as skiing)
look like / sound like / smell like = similar to
As or like can be used before a clause. We went to Greece as/like we did last year
As often used with knowing/expecting/believing (As you know, As you’d expect)

For more exercises on linking words, please try the following links!

BIG TABLE OF LINKING WORDS

GREAT EXERCISES FOR LINKING WORDS PRACTICE

MORE EXERCISES FOR LINKING WORDS

 

Please try my some of the following lessons and enrich your language

VOCABULARY LESSONS
PHRASAL VERBS
TENSES
COMMON MISTAKES